An Evaluation of the “Police Response to Uncrewed Aircraft Systems Operations” Online Training Program

Main Article Content

Anthony Galante
Leila Halawi


This study evaluates the impact of the “Police Response to Uncrewed Aircraft Systems Operations” online training program of officers from the Daytona Beach Police Department (DBPD). By measuring the effectiveness of the training through pretest and posttest assessments and considering variables such as educational background, length of service, and rank, this research underscores the training’s potential to enhance UAS response capabilities. Employing a self-selection sampling method, the study engaged 82 voluntary participants from the DBPD, revealing significant improvement across all groups in UAS knowledge and confidence levels. Despite limitations, these findings offer compelling evidence of the training’s efficacy and advocate for continuous education to strengthen law enforcement’s readiness and public safety preparedness in the face of evolving technological challenges. Future investigations should delve into long-term effects and underlying factors to bolster the robustness of these results.

Article Details

Peer-Reviewed Articles


Agata, D., & Galante, A. (2017, August 1). You are charting your agency’s response to uncrewed and model aircraft. Tactical Edge.

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out Prohibition, 14 CFR § 89.125 (2023). Retrieved from

Barnett, A. (2020, January 6). Aviation safety: A whole new world? Transportation Science, 54(1), 84–96.

Cerreta, J., Denney, T., Burgess, S. S., Galante, A., Thirtyacre, D., Wilson, G. A., & Sherman, P. (2022). UAS for public safety: Active threat recognition. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 9(2).

Chetty, P. (2015). Interpretation of factor analysis using SPSS. Knowledge Tank; Project


City of Canton, Ohio v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989). Retrieved from

Daytona Beach Police Department. (2023). Police department: Daytona Beach, FL - official website. Retrieved February 3, 2023, from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (n.d.). NMACS system information: FAA near midair collision system (NMACS). Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2018, September 18). FAA compliance and enforcement program (Order 2150.3C). Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2020). Integration of civil unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS) roadmap (3rd ed.). Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2022a). FAA aerospace forecast: Fiscal years 2022-2042. Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2022b, March 10). Unmanned aircraft systems beyond visual line of sight aviation rulemaking committee. Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2022c, June 14). Public safety and law enforcement toolkit. Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (2022d, Jan-Dec) Reporting UAS Sightings. Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2022e, December 19). Airport safety and airspace hazard mitigation and enforcement (Section 383). Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2023b, January 9). UAS sightings report. Retrieved from

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (2023e, April 10). Air traffic by the numbers. Retrieved from

Finn, R. L., & Wright, D. (2012, April). Unmanned aircraft systems: Surveillance, ethics, and privacy in civil applications. Computer Law & Security Review, 28(2), 184–194.

Justice Technology Information Center (July, 2016). Law enforcement guidance concerning suspected unauthorized UAS operations. White Paper. Retrieved from

Hair, J. F., Hult, T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Herz, R. (2008). Assessing the influence of human factors and experience on predator mishaps (Publication No. 3299218) [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Howard, R. O.. (2023). FAA unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sighting reports: A preliminary survey. In AIAA AVIATION 2023 Forum.

Katz, E. (2023, March 23). Flight delays will spike this summer due to FAA staffing shortages, the agency warns. Government Executive. Retrieved from

Kubas, S. (2023). Consequences of unlawful use of airspace by unmanned aerial vehicles. Annuals of the Administration and Law, 2(XXIII), 65–73.

Latorella, K. A., & Prabhu, P. V. (2000). A review of human error in aviation maintenance and inspection. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 26(2), 133–161.

Monell v. Department of Social Services, 436 U.S. 658 (1978). Retrieved from

Morin, R., Parker, K., Stepler, R., & Mercer, A. (2017, January 11). Behind the badge - 6. Police views, public views. Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. Retrieved from

Mrusek, B. M., Kiernan, K. W., & Clark, P. J. (2018). UAS maintenance: A critical component in maintaining airworthiness. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 5(5), 1–18.

NBC News (2015). The U.S. Could Reach 1 Million Drone Flights a Day by 2035, Trade Group Says. Retrieved from

Novak, K. J., Smith, B. W., & Frank, J. (2003). Strange bedfellows: Civil liability and aggressive policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 26(2), 352.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Pothana, P., Joy, J., Snyder, P., & Vidhyadharan, S. (2023). UAS air-risk assessment in and around airports. 2023 Integrated Communication, Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS), 1–11.

Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F. Supp. 1237 (1979, August 31). Retrieved from,in%20response%20to%20the%20commotion

Shepardson, D. (2022, July 21st ). Drone sighting prompts brief halt to flights at Washington National. Reuters. Retrieved from

Tedeschi, P., Al Nuaimi, F. A., Awad, A. I., & Natalizio, E. (2024). Privacy-Aware Remote Identification for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Current Solutions, Potential Threats, and Future Directions. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 20(2), 1–12.

U.S. Department of Justice (USDOJ). (2023, January 23). Unmanned aircraft systems. Office of Legal Policy. Retrieved from

U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO). (2019, October 17). Unmanned aircraft systems: FAA’s compliance and enforcement approach for drones could benefit from improved communication and data.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO). (2023). Drone operations. Retrieved from

Wallace, R. J., Winter, S. R., Rice, S., Kovar, D. C., & Lee, S.-A. (2023). Three case studies on small uncrewed aerial systems near midair collisions with aircraft: An evidence-based approach for using objective uncrewed aerial systems detection technology. SAE International Journal of Aerospace, 16(3), 1–16.