Examining the Perception and Effectiveness of a System Awareness Briefing During Cruise Flight

Scott R. Winter, Mattie N. Milner, Emily C. Anania, Stephen Rice, Nathan W. Walters, Diego Garcia, Bradley S. Baugh

Abstract


Automation has increased the safety of air transportation by assisting pilots during periods of high workload and during critical phases of flight. However, an unintended consequence of automation proliferation has been the reduction in attention resulting from its use. Prior research has shown that during periods of high automation and low workload, pilots’ minds begin to wander and occupy themselves with thoughts other than the current task at hand. This research involved conducting four separate studies addressing the following research questions: 1) Would the use of a system awareness briefing result in the general public being more willing to fly on commercial airlines? 2) Do student pilots support the use of a system awareness briefing? and 3) Does a system awareness briefing actually improve pilot awareness of automation and aircraft parameters during cruise flight? The results from Studies 1 and 2 indicated participants preferred flying with a pilot who was using the system awareness briefing compared to a pilot not using the briefing. The findings from Study 3 did not reveal any significant differences between pilots who used the system awareness briefing versus those that did not. In Study 4, pilots who used the system awareness briefing were more accurate in reporting current heading, fuel flow, and electrical volts, compared to pilots who did not use the briefing. They also reported that they felt more situational awareness compared to the control group.

Keywords: system awareness briefing; experimental research; automation; training


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bahner, J.E., Hüper, A., & Manzey, D. (2008). Misuse of automated decision aids: complacency, automation bias and the impact of training experience. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,66, 688-699.

Bailey, N.R. & Scerbo, M.W. (2007). Automation-induced complacency for monitoring highly reliable systems: the role of task complexity, system experience, and operator trust. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 8(4), 321-348.

Billings, C.E. & Cheaney, E.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information Transfer Problems in the Aviation System. Moffett Field, CA. 1981.

Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(3), 3-5.

Casner, S. (2014, December 3). Cockpit automation impacts pilots ability to perform manual tasks, says study. Progressive Digital Media Aerospace News.

Casner, S.M., Geven, R.W., Recker, M.P., & Schooler, J.W. (2014). The retention of manual flying skills in the automated cockpit. Human Factors, 56(8), 1506-1516.

Casner, S.M., & Schooler, J.W. (2014). Thoughts in flight: Automation use and pilots’ task-related and task-unrelated thought. Human Factors, 56(3), 433-442.

Chow, S. & Epstein, D.J. (2014). Asiana Airlines flight 214: Investigating cockpit automation and culture issues in aviation safety. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 4(2), 113-121.

Cowley, J.A. (2012). Towards a theory of mind wandering in relation to task type, behavioral responses, and respective adverse consequences in piloted vehicles (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest database. (UMI Number: 3575610).

Damos, D.L., John, R.S., & Lyall, E.A. (1999). The effect of Level of automation on time spent looking out of the cockpit. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(3), 303-314.

Damos, D.L., John, R.S., & Lyall, E.A. (2005). Pilot activities and the level of cockpit automation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 15(3), 251-268.

Ebbatson, M., Harris, D., Huddlestone, J., & Sears, R. (2010). The relationship between manual handling performance and recent flying experience in air transport pilots. Ergonomics, 53(2), 268-277.

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2000). A connectionist model of complacency and adaptive recovery under automation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Leaning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(2), 395-410.

Feaver, D.B. (1987). Automation, routine can produce cockpit inattentiveness. The Washington Post, p. A1.

Germine, L., Nakayama, K., Duchaine, B.C., Chabris, C.F., Chatterjee, G., & Wilmer, J.B. (2012) Is the web as good as the lab? Comparable performance from web and lab in cognitive/perceptual experiments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(5), 847-857.

Hayes, A.F. (2013) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press: New York.

Koning, Y.P. (1992, September). The effects of automation on crew coordination in the corporate cockpit (Master dissertation). Available from ProQuest database. (UMI Number: EP31847).

Morrocco, J.D. (1996). Cockpit automation raises training concerns. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 144(10), 39.

Mosier, K.L., Skitka, L.J., Heers, S., Burdick, M. (1998). Automation bias: Decision making and performance in high-tech cockpits. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(1), 47-63.

Parasuraman, R., & Manzey, D.H. (2010). Complacency and bias in human use of automation: An attentional integration. Human Factors, 52(3), 381-410.

Rice, S., Winter, S.R., Doherty, S. & Milner, M.N. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of using internet-based survey methods in aviation-related research. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 7(1), 58-65.

Sarter, N.B. (1995). “Strong, silent, and ‘out-of-the-loop’”: Properties of advanced (cockpit) automation and their impact on human-automation interaction (Doctoral dissertation).

Singh, A.L., Tiwari, T., & Singh, I.L. (2009). Effects of automation reliability and training on automation-induced complacency and perceived mental workload [Special issue]. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35, 9-22.

Smallwood, J. & Schooler, J.W. (2006). The restless mind. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6), 946-958.

Wickens, C. D. (1992). Engineering psychology and human performance (2nd ed.). Scranton, PA: HarperCollins.

Wiener, E.L. & Curry, R.E. (2007). Flight-deck automation: promises and problems. Ergonomics, 23(10), 995-1011.

Young, J.P., Fanjoy, R.O., & Suckow, M.W. (2006). Impact of glass cockpit experience on manual flight skills. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research, 15(2).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22488/okstate.19.100201

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.