The Schemata of Hope: A Q Methodological Look

Main Article Content

Dalsook Kim
Hung Kyu Kim


The purpose of the study is to understand the nature of "hope" by
explaining It more scientifically. A sample of 37 statements bearing on
the personal meaning of hope was sorted by 13 cancer, 13
chronically-ill, and 5 disabled patients. The results indicate that
there are seven types of hope: (1) dependence of transcendental-being,
(2) cognition of reality, (3) orientation-toward-relationship, (4)
existential, (5) self-fulfillment, (6) miracle-expectation, and (7)
redefinition of reality. From the study, "hope" could be defined as the
process in which continuous imagination and evolution of possibility
cause changes in human recognition, attitude, action, etc. The
significance of the study is three fold: (1) The discovery of seven
types of hope in Korean people and the better understanding of its
schemata; (2) suitability of Q methodology to the study of nursing
concepts; and (3) the suggestion of assessments and intervention
techniques based on the understanding of hope from this research.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kim, D., & Kim, H. K. (1996). The Schemata of Hope: A Q Methodological Look. Operant Subjectivity, 20(1/2). Retrieved from