Exploring the "inside/outside" dichotomy: Views of Oklahoma lobbyists

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James A. Davis
Amy Blose


Do lobbyists observe techniques beyond the "inside/outside" dichotomy? This manuscript reviews existing interest group literature and lobbying research. The response data of Oklahoma lobbyists to items on fourteen lobbying techniques suggests there are four, not two, factors. These are labeled: electioneering and personal persuasion, information and advocacy mobilization, publicity and legislative strategizing and decision-implementation. Only the fourth factor is composed of the alternative in the dichotomy- i.e., "inside" lobbying. The results may raise as many questions as they settle. However, they clearly show more than two lobbying domains. In fact, Oklahoma lobbyists often mix "inside" and "outside" techniques.

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