Note: Pawnee Native Sumac/Tobacco Resurgence

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C.R. "Randy" Ledford


Research of historical tobacco changes and continuation in current practices has led to recommendations after thoughtful consideration by the Pawnee Nation Agricultural Committee and the Chiefs' Council. Preparation of a native tobacco mixture taught to the author by Boy Chief is explained. Traditionalists recently allowed the use of a native tobacco/native smooth sumac mixture in tribal ceremonies. Because native tobacco is additive-free and has a lower nicotine content, this mixture is considered healthier than commercially marketed tobacco for use in ceremonies.

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