Anther Number, Anther Apical Appendages, and Pollination Biology of Calyptocarpus vialis Lessing (Heliantheae: Asteraceae)

James R. Estes


The numbers of disk floret anthers of Calyptocarpus vialis in Wichita County, Texas form a consecutive series of one to four; four anthers (71%) and three anthers (27%) were most common. Three anthers is an unusual, perhaps singular, number for Asteraceae. These florets also have four-lobed corollas. The extruded pollen-mass is enclosed by a vaulted dome created by apical appendages of the anthers that are lanceolate and inflexed. Pollination appears to be via autogamy (sensu stricto) for disk florets and (considering each head as a single blossom) facultative autogamy and allogamy (both geitonogamy and xenogamy) for the ray florets.


secondary pollen presentation; pollen-dome; reproductive system; bordered patch butterflies; invasive species

Full Text:


Copyright (c) 2019 James R. Estes

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.