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The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting infant mortality in India as informed by the "Demographic Transition Theory." This theory suggests that improved standard of living, public health programs, changes in nutrition, technological and medical advances, and sanitary reforms promote a decline in the level of mortality. Using the data from the National Family Health Survey, India: 1998-1999, this study tests the following major hypothesis: The higher the level of socioeconomic development, the lower the infant mortality rate among the states of India. The findings support the demographic transition theory in large measure, revealing that the overall socioeconomic development is inversely related to infant mortality rate among the states of India.